Published Papers

History of PSM Development

Microns, Microns, Everywhere and All of Them Out of Line

Complementary Aspects of Optical Alignment and Image Symmetry

INTRO: INTRODUCTION Almost all optical elements and systems are sym- metric about their optical axes which means there are only 5 degrees of freedom that will affect op- tical alignment. Likewise, stigmatic images of a point source of light imaged by a finite conjugate optical system have 5 types of symmetry. There is a part of the image that is symmetric about the centroid of the image, and there are 4 symmetries in the plane of the image, namely, even-even, odd-odd, even-odd and odd-even. We show there is a one-to-one correspondence between the im- age symmetries and the degrees of freedom op- tical elements can be moved to align them.

Transmission sphere calibration using a Fresnel zone CGH

ABSTRACT: There are two basic methods of calibrating a transmission sphere without use of an external artifact, statistical or shear. In the low NA range where shearing is the preferred method, the calibration is difficult to perform precisely because it is hard to measure the shear distance or rotation of the reference surface precisely. If the reference is a Fresnel zone CGH, then there are two centers of curvature that provide an axis that can be located precisely. We show theoretically and experimentally an absolute method of calibrating a TS using one rotational and one translational shear.

Systematic method of alignment using aberrations

ABSTRACT: Talk is largely tutorial by has a two-fold motivation Definitions of kinds of alignmentInitial alignment steps to get light into alignment sensor-autostigmatic microscope, alignment telescope or interferometer Systematic alignment steps using the alignment sensor. Good idea to have a written procedure because many steps Alignment results using real hardware. Robert E. Parks, Benjamin F. […]


Authors: Robert E. Parks (Optical Perspectives Group, LLC) and Daewook Kim (J. C. Wyant College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona). INTRODUCTION Following the discovery of so called non-diffracting Bessel beams[1], they have been used for a number of exotic purposes such as trapping single atoms and aiding in the discovery of exoplanets. We discuss more […]

Rapid Centering Of Optics

ABSTRACT Traditionally a rotary table is used for optical centering because the table creates an axis as a reference. Previously, we showed that a Bessel beam also creates an axis useful for centering. The Bessel beam axis and a center of curvature of a surface makes it possible to center an optic simultaneously in tilt […]

Practical Considerations For Using Grating Produced Bessel Beams For Alignment Purposes

ABSTRACT Bessel beams are useful for alignment because they create a small diameter, bright, straight line image in space perpendicular to the Axicon, or Axicon grating, producing the beam that is an exact analog of a single ray in a ray tracing program. Here we limit our discussion to Bessel beams produced by plane gratings […]

Precision Cementing Of Doublets Without Using A Rotary Table

ABSTRACT Methods of centering without using a precision rotary table to establish a reference axis in space are several times faster than with a rotary table. However, finding an optimum method of establishing an alternative reference axis is challenging. We look at the small class of centering situations involving the precision cementing of doublets to […]

Aligning Reflecting Optics With Bessel Beams

ABSTRACT Bessel beams have found use in the alignment of transmissive optics for some time. They are also used for the alignment of reflecting optics when used in the imaging mode, that is, when the wavefront is near spherical. However, there are cases where it would be useful to use the Bessel beam for alignment […]

Prism Alignment Using A Point Source Microscope

1. INTRODUCTION Spherically mounted retroreflectors (SMRs) are an essential part of spatial metrology when using a laser tracker. However, the precision of the laser tracker measurement is no better than the precision with which the cube corner retroreflector is mounted in the spherical ball. Thus measuring the position of the apex of the cube corner […]

Design For Alignment

1. INTRODUCTION The premise of this paper is that the only remaining way to improve optical system performance is with better alignment techniques. We feel optical design is a mature field and that little can be done to improve the design of optical systems by improvements to lens design software. The software may become easier […]

Centering Steep Aspheric Surfaces

1. INTRODUCTION Finding the optical axis of an aspheric surface is an essential part of making an aspheric lens because the center of curvature, or optical axis, of the second side must lie on, or be coincident with, respectively, the optical axis of the first side for maximum optical performance. Looking at the center of […]

Computer Generated Holograms As Fixtures For Testing Optical Elements

1. INTRODUCTION It is common to think of computer generated holograms (CGH) as artifacts for testing aspheres but they can also be used as general calibration artifacts and fixtures for the alignment and test other more conventional optics. We show how simple Fresnel zone patterns can be created to simulate centers of curvature or axes […]

Reverse Engineering Lens Elements

Introduction Need for reverse engineering Properties needed to reverse engineer Measurements needed Measurements that can be made Center thickness Rear Radius Back focal length No closed form solution for unknowns Spreadsheet example N, t and r2 were estimated and a, b and c calculated Solver used to minimize lower right hand cell to give calculated n, t […]

Non-Contact Probe For On-Machine Metrology

INTRODUCTION On-machine metrology is particularly important for diamond turning and grinding as it is difficult to remount and align a part if it does not meet off-line inspection criteria. There is also the issue of tool wear; a process that started well may fail part way through the cut, and if tool replacement is needed, […]

Versatile Autostigmatic Microscope

ABSTRACT  An autostigmatic microscope is described and its uses explained. Then an adaptation of the original instrument is described that uses current technological advances in laser diodes and video displays to turn an old workhorse into a versatile optical test and alignment device. This paper illustrates applications that make use of the capabilities of the […]

Optical Alignment Using The Point Source Microscope

ABSTRACT We give an example of a Point Source Microscope (PSM) and describe its uses as an aid in the alignment of optical systems including the referencing of optical to mechanical datums. The PSM is a small package (about 100x150x30 mm), including a point source of light, beam splitter, microscope objective and digital CCD camera […]

Alignment Of Optical Systems

1. Introduction As optical systems become more complex and packaging requirements more severe and multi-dimensional, proper alignment becomes more challenging. Yet with current improvements in the manufacture and measurement of optical surfaces to nm levels, alignment is one of the few remaining opto-mechanical aspects of optical system manufacture and assembly where improvement in optical performance […]

Using The Point Source Microscope (PSM) To Find Conjugates Of Parabolic And Elliptical Off-axis Mirrors

ABSTRACT Although the PSM is primarily an alignment instrument, it can also be used to determine the conjugates of parabolic and elliptical off-axis mirrors. By positioning the PSM at the sagittal and tangential foci of the mirrors, the conjugate distances of the mirror can be found using a laser range finder, for example. Knowing the […]
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